Massimo de Sanctis
Periodontal diseases, comprising gingivitis and periodontitis, are probably the most common disease of mankind (Guinness World Records 2001). The recent Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD, 1990–2010) indicates that severe periodontitis is the 6th most prevalent disease worldwide, with an overall prevalence of 11.2% and around 743 million people affected, and the global burden of periodontal disease increased by 57.3% from 1990 to 2010 ( J clin periodontol. 2017).
Periodontitis severely impairs the individuals’ oral health-related quality of life, their self-esteem and their general well-being. It is the second most widely spread infectious disease and it is the cause of loss of teeth, alimentary dysfunction, social difficulties. The global burden of periodontal diseases remains high. Population growth trends, changes in risk factors and improved tooth retention will increase the socio‐economic burden of periodontitis that is responsible for 3.5 million years lived with disability, 54 billion USD/year in lost productivity and a major portion of the 442 billion USD/year cost for oral diseases.
The characteristic of the disease is a progressive destruction of the relationship between connective tissue and root surface and in turn the resorption of bone.
Periodontitis is known to be linked also to disease as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and preterm born. Periodontal disease is likely to cause 19% increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease, and this increase in relative risk reaches to 44% among individuals aged 65 years and over. Type 2 diabetic individuals with severe form of periodontal disease have 3.2 times greater mortality risk compared with individuals with no or mild periodontitis. Periodontal therapy has been shown to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic subjects. Periodontitis is related to maternal infection, preterm birth, low birth weight, and preeclampsia. The relationship between these pathologies is related to the production during periodontitis of proactive cytokine as well as prostaglandins that may trigger several inflammatory factors in other organs, as participate to the breaking of atheromatous lesions or alterate the glucose intake.
Our research center is following several lines of clinical research, mainly in: